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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2244\margr4373\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2244\margrsxn4373\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li1339\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx5360 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 POLITICAL ORGANISATION{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-29 31}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li7\fi0\ri115\sb223\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 further resistance futile. Many of the \super c\nosupersub Dasas' became \expndtw-2 slaves \i (dasa\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97\i0\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 slave) of the conquerors, having been ad\-\expndtw0 mitted in society as \i Stidras, \i0 but others retired into the \expndtw5 jungles and mountain fastnesses, where we still find \expndtw3 their descendants living in primitive conditions.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li18\fi0\ri0\sb266\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex84\expndtw1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 Political Organisation}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li14\fi454\ri0\sb169\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The family \i (griha \i0 or \i kula) \i0 was the ultimate basis of! \expndtw3 the Vedic state.   A number of families, connected with; \expndtw8 ties of kinship, formed the \i grama.   \i0 An aggregate of; \expndtw3 villages made up the \i vif \i0 (district or clan), and a group \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'95\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 ' \expndtw7 of \i vif \i0 composed \i ihtjana \i0 (tribe).   The tribe was under \expndtw2 the rule of its chief or king \i (rajan), \i0 who was often here-' \expndtw1 ditary, as would appear from several lines of succession\super : \nosupersub\expndtw-1 mentioned in the \i Rjgveda\super 1\nosupersub .   \i0 Occasionally the \i E.a/an \i0 was \expndtw2 elected by the w7, but it is not clear whether the choice -\expndtw10 was  limited to  members of the ruling house or was extended to other noble families.    The king led the \expndtw8 tribe in battle, and ensured their protection, in return \expndtw7 for which the people rendered him obedience or gave \expndtw9 voluntary gifts.   Perhaps the king did not then raise \expndtw6 any fixed taxes for the maintenance of the royal state. \expndtw4 When free from fighting, he dispensed justice and per\-\expndtw-2 formed sacrifices for material prosperity.   The \i Purohita.,. \i0\expndtw-1 besides the \i Senani \i0 (leader of the army') and the \i Gramam, \i0\expndtw3 was the most important member of the royal entourage! He received gifts and by spells and incantations prayed \expndtw4 for his master's success in all undertakings.   The king' \expndtw5 was by no means an autocrat; his powers were limited \expndtw-2 by the will of the people as expressed in the \i Sabhd \i0 ('coun\-\expndtw3 cil  of   Elders')   and   \i Samiti   \i0 ('assembly of the whole. \expndtw-1 people*).\super 2\nosupersub    The   states  were  usually   small,   but   due;}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li382\fi0\ri0\sb284\sa0\tx504 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw3 cf. e. g., VadhryasVa, Divodasa, Pijavana and Sudas.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li11\fi371\ri0\sb29\sa0\sl-202\slmult0\tx504 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw1 The true import of these terms is not quite  clear.   According\line \expndtw2 to Keith, the \i Samiti \i0 was "the assembly of the people for the   busi-}\par }